Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Unequal leg length tied to osteoarthritis (ample chiropractic research already links joint misalignment to pain and arthritis.) Science Daily

Unequal leg length tied to osteoarthritis, study finds

[The type of arthritis they are discussing here is the "normal" arthritis associated with aging. They are recognizing that by eliminating or improving joint misalignment's, they can eliminate or reduce osteoarthritis. Chiropractic BioPhysics as practiced at Banic Chiropractic Clinic can improve even large joint misalignment's such as head forward posture, loss of cervical curve, increased thoracic curve/ dowagers hump, and sway back or increased pelvic tilt. We can also improve asymmetry when viewing from the front such as head tilt, unlevel shoulders, and shifting of the torso relative to the pelvis. These improvements will improve your overall and long term health.]

"Most pediatricians adopt a 'wait and see' attitude for children with limb misalignment when they're growing," says Dr. Cooke. "If we can spot factors creating changes in alignment early in bone development, theoretically we could stop or slow down the progression of osteoarthritis."

The data was collected using x-ray images from more than 3,000 adults aged 50 to 79 who either had knee pain or risk factors for knee osteoarthritis as a part of the Multi Centre Osteoarthritis Study (MOST). Subjects were reassessed after a 30-month period and the researchers found that osteoarthritic changes in the knee were most significant in individuals with pronounced (more than 1 cm) leg length inequality, the shorter leg being most affected.

Regimens: How Much Exercise Will Prevent Weight Gain? Now you know courtesy of the New York Times

Regimens: How Much Exercise Will Prevent Weight Gain?

[Here is the article in its entirety. It is inspiring yet challenging to avoid the mid-life weight gain. I am still losing my after baby weight, unfortunately, my daughter is turning two in a week. I guess I am going to need to get up above 7 hours per week of exercise.]

Losing weight is difficult, and keeping it off may be even harder. So Harvard researchers set out to determine exactly how much physical activity women need in midlife to avoid gaining weight as they age.

The researchers found that an hour of moderate activity a day — including such recreational activities as brisk walking, leisurely bicycling, ballroom dancing and playing with children — prevented women of normal weight from gaining more than five pounds over any three-year period. Half that amount of vigorous activity, like running, jogging or fast biking, will do the trick as well, they said.

Women who got the same amount of exercise but were heavier to start with were not able to avoid gaining weight, however. Neither were women of normal weight who got less than seven hours a week of moderate activity, according to the study, published in the March 24 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

The average weight gain over the course of the 15-year study, which followed 34,079 healthy women with an average age of 54 at the beginning, was just over five pounds. The researchers did not take diet into account.

“It’s so hard to lose weight and maintain the loss, so whatever weight you are, you should try to stay that weight — that is a success,” said the paper’s lead author, Dr. I-Min Lee, an associate professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health.

But any amount of exercise is beneficial, she emphasized. “People shouldn’t just throw up their hands and say, ‘Sixty minutes? I can’t do that,’ and give up. Health is more than weight.”

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Breast fed and formula fed babies not getting enough vitamin D - CNN reports on Pediatrics journal and Center for Disease Control studies

Babies not getting enough vitamin D

[Here I was patting myself on the back for my all natural approach to mothering, and now I find out the 9 of 10 breast fed babies are Vitamin D deficient. That is totally shocking to me. I truly believed that breastfeeding would ensure my child had all the nutrients they need. Well, now you know, supplement or sun is required for babies.]

Very few infants who consumed breast milk alone - between 5 percent and 13 percent - met the current or former recommendation for vitamin D intake. Among the formula-fed infants, 81 percent to 98 percent met the former recommendation, but just 20 percent to 37 percent of the same infants would have met the current recommendation.

Most babies did not receive vitamin D supplements. No more than 13 percent of the breast-fed infants were given supplements, and fewer than 4 percent of the formula-fed babies received them.

The results - especially concerning formula-fed babies- are eye-opening, says Carrie Drazba, M.D., a pediatrician at Rush University Medical Center, in Chicago. "I don't think a lot of us realized that formula-fed babies are not meeting their vitamin D requirements," she says.

Although the most obvious health problem associated with vitamin D deficiency in babies is rickets, or soft bones, pediatricians are increasingly mindful of respiratory infections and chronic diseases (such as type 1 diabetes) that have been linked to inadequate intake of the vitamin in that age group, Drazba says.

A pair of studies published last year, for instance, found that children with low levels of vitamin D were more likely to have several risk factors that contribute to heart disease, including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, and low HDL (or good cholesterol).

"We're finding out that there are other risks associated with vitamin D deficiency besides rickets," says Drazba. "A lot of cells in our body have receptors for vitamin D."

Sunday, March 21, 2010

Chiropractic decreases back pain in pregnancy, 94% had clinically important pain relief in 4.5 days. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006

[Our pampering combination of full spine chiropractic care and therapeutic massage has made those last months of pregnancy bearable for so many women, including myself. The great thing is that it is natural. I was afraid to even take a single Ibuprofen while pregnant and breastfeeding, leaving Chiropractic the safe and sensible alternative.]

J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006 Jan-Feb;51(1):e7-10.

Chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain of pregnancy: a retrospective case series.
Lisi AJ.

University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic.

Low back pain is a common complaint in pregnancy, with a reported prevalence of 57% to 69% and incidence of 61%. Although such pain can result in significant disability, it has been shown that as few as 32% of women report symptoms to their prenatal provider, and only 25% of providers recommend treatment. Chiropractors sometimes manage low back pain in pregnant women; however, scarce data exist regarding such treatment. This retrospective case series was undertaken to describe the results of a group of pregnant women with low back pain who underwent chiropractic treatment including spinal manipulation. Seventeen cases met all inclusion criteria. The overall group average Numerical Rating Scale pain score decreased from 5.9 (range 2-10) at initial presentation to 1.5 (range 0-5) at termination of care. Sixteen of 17 (94.1%) cases demonstrated clinically important improvement. The average time to initial clinically important pain relief was 4.5 (range 0-13) days after initial presentation, and the average number of visits undergone up to that point was 1.8 (range 1-5). No adverse effects were reported in any of the 17 cases. The results suggest that chiropractic treatment was safe in these cases and support the hypothesis that it may be effective for reducing pain intensity.

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Spinal manipulations (chiropractic) significantly benefit sciatica with disc herniation and acute low back pain. Spine Journal

[Spine Journal is a very prestigious medical journal. They performed this study to determine the efficacy and safety of spinal manipulation (chiropractic) in caring for patients with evidence of disc protrusion accompanied by sciatica and low back pain. The researchers found that spinal manipulation (chiropractic adjustments) increased the number of pain free days, reduced radiating symptoms - pain into the leg, and reduced overall pain. There were no adverse effects of the treatment. Anyone suffering from the debilitating effects of sciatica and disc herniation should consider a course of conservative chiropractic treatment before discussing surgical options. See WebMD post on deaths from elective surgery associated with medical errors.]

Spine J. 2006 Mar-Apr;6(2):131-7. Epub 2006 Feb 3.

Chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion: a randomized double-blind clinical trial of active and simulated spinal manipulations.
Santilli V, Beghi E, Finucci S.

Direttore Cattedra Medicina Fisica e Riabilitativa, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, Roma, Rome, 00185, Italy.

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Acute back pain and sciatica are major sources of disability. Many medical interventions are available, including manipulations, with conflicting results. PURPOSE: To assess the short- and long-term effects of spinal manipulations on acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Randomized double-blind trial comparing active and simulated manipulations in rehabilitation medical centers in Rome and suburbs. PATIENT SAMPLE: 102 ambulatory patients with at least moderate pain on a visual analog scale for local pain (VAS1) and/or radiating pain (VAS2). OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain-free patients at end of treatment; treatment failure (proportion of patients stopping the assigned treatment for lack of effect on pain); number of days with no, mild, moderate, or severe pain; quality of life; number of days on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; number of drug prescriptions; VAS1 and VAS2 scores; quality of life and psychosocial findings; and reduction of disc protrusion on magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Manipulations or simulated manipulations were done 5 days per week by experienced chiropractors, with a number of sessions which depended on pain relief or up to a maximum of 20, using a rapid thrust technique. Patients were assessed at admission and at 15, 30, 45, 90, and 180 days. At each visit, all indicators of pain relief were used. RESULTS: A total of 64 men and 38 women aged 19-63 years were randomized to manipulations (53) or simulated manipulations (49). Manipulations appeared more effective on the basis of the percentage of pain-free cases (local pain 28 vs. 6%; p<.005; radiating pain 55 vs. 20%; p<.0001), number of days with pain (23.6 vs. 27.4; p<.005), and number of days with moderate or severe pain (13.9 vs. 17.9; p<.05). Patients receiving manipulations had lower mean VAS1 (p<.0001) and VAS2 scores (p<.001). A significant interaction was found between therapeutic arm and time. There were no significant differences in quality of life and psychosocial scores. There were only two treatment failures (manipulation 1; simulated manipulation 1) and no adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Active manipulations have more effect than simulated manipulations on pain relief for acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion.

PMID: 16517383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

WebMD reports on back pain and neck pain risks for kids.

[Heavy back packs, texting, and in my opinion, playing video games and lack of education about proper posture and body mechanics are all wreaking havoc on children's backs. We see more and more pediatric cases with symptoms that would be more typical in an adult. Please, take the time to learn proper sitting and standing posture and teach them to your children. When standing, the ear should be over the shoulder, shoulder over hip, and hip aligned with knee and ankle. When sitting, slumping and slouching forward with your shoulders curved in and your head jutting out are horrible for your body. When poor postures are held over long periods of time, eventually the body maintains that position leaving the child on the road to having a "bad back".]

Texting may be preferred over phone jabbering by many young people, but too much text messaging may increase the risk of neck or shoulder pain, a new study shows. "What we’ve seen so far is very similar to what we see with office workers who’ve spent most of their time at a computer," Gold says. "The way the body is positioned for texting -- stationary shoulders and back with rapidly moving fingers -- is similar to the position for typing on a computer. They used body maps for the students to indicate areas of discomfort. The students were asked how many text messages they sent per day.
The researchers say they found an association, only in male participants, between shoulder discomfort and the number of messages punched out.

Texting Can Be a Pain in the Neck, Shoulders

A new study shows heavy backpacks place significant strain on children's spines and may lead to back pain.

Researchers say it's the first study to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to document compression of the spinal discs and spinal curvature caused by a typical school backpack load on children.

"Backpack loads are responsible for a significant amount of back pain in children, which in part, may be due to changes in lumbar disc height or curvature," write researchers Timothy B. Neuschwander, MD, of the University of California, San Diego, in Spine.

"Over 92% of children in the United States carry backpacks that are typically loaded with 10% to 22% body weight," write the researchers. "Thirty-seven percent of children aged 11 to 14 years report back pain, the majority of whom attribute the pain to wearing a school backpack."

In the study, researchers used an upright MRI scanner to image the spines of eight children, average age of 11, while standing first with an empty backpack and then backpack loads representing 10%, 20%, and 30% of the children's body weight (9, 18, and 26 pounds, respectively).

The results showed two key spinal measurements changed as the weight of the backpack increased. Heavier weights caused compression of the discs that act as a cushion between the bones of the spine.

Researchers say that disc compression was especially great in the lower spine at heavier backpack weights.

Heavier backpack loads were also associated with increased curvature of the lower spine. Half of the children had a significant spinal curve even with the 18-pound backpack. Most of the children had to adjust their posture to adapt to the heaviest, 26-pound backpack load.

The amount of back pain reported by the children also increased as backpack load increased. At the heaviest load, the average pain score was nearly 5 out of 10 for the children.

Researchers say the results show heavy backpacks cause compression of the spinal discs and increased spinal curvature that are related to the back pain reported by children.

In the study, children wore the backpacks with the straps over both shoulders, but researchers say the spinal curvature could be even worse if the backpack were carried over one shoulder as many children do.

Monday, March 15, 2010

Back pain accounts for 1/3 of work place injuries. Can A Vibrating Mouse Prevent Computer-related Injuries?

[Don't wait for your body to break down, learn how to stop it. We offer a course on workplace ergonomics and have provided public speaking on ergonomics and workplace safety at many eastside businesses.]

Back injuries also account for one-third of all workplace injuries. A decade ago most of these were associated with heavy lifting. Today they are mostly caused by people sitting for longer periods of time -- often in front of a computer.

The younger onset of computer use makes the current rate of compensatory damage claims the canary in the coal mine. There is typically a 10- to 15-year latency before injuries start to develop, Hedge has found. In the early 1990s he showed that the average age of workers reporting carpal tunnel syndrome was late 30s to early 40s; last year, he found the average age of onset had dropped to the mid-20s and even younger for some people.

Can A Vibrating Mouse Prevent Computer-related Injuries?

Do you need a mechanic or a chiropractor? - Danbury News Times

[I love how this doctor writes about chiropractic, and he is being interviewed by a registered nurse.]

What I want you to do is put your arm in a sling and come back and see me in two weeks. What do you think will happen with the shoulder?" asked Danbury chiropractic physician Dr. Ronald G. Manoni.

I imagined my arm in a sling, immobilized for weeks and answered, "You'd get a frozen shoulder."

"You'd get a frozen shoulder," he affirmed. "Atrophy of the musculature. So what happens to the spine is you get these small muscles that atrophy... You get joints that get locked or semi-locked, that can't move.

"You take a perfectly healthy joint and immobilize it, and you get destruction of the joint. Patients come to me and say, "I bent over wrong, I did this, I did that, and I say, "Look, if someone is walking up the stairs and has a heart attack, you wouldn't say the stairs caused it, would you?

"It was cumulative factors. It was hereditary, he smoked, drank alcohol, didn't exercise, was overweight... So the same process happens on an ongoing basis with the spine through injuries, improper bending, lifting, prolonged posture.

"It's cumulative. All those things combined, just as in heart disease, can cause a problem in spinal functioning and the overall health of a person."

Manoni referred to the National Safety Council's estimate of 1,500 spinal traumas from falls that a child has by the time he is 10 years old.

He said chiropractic can be very effective in relieving asthma symptoms. "If you have a diminishment of function in the nerves going to the bronchioles, they don't function as well, but by relieving the irritation on the nerve root, asthmatics can get relief."

"That's an interesting thing," I mused. "So little by little we get out of alignment?"

"The out of alignment," he sighed. "You're not the front end of a car. It's a neurological dysfunction. It's cumulative -- there are falls, prolonged postures, abnormal stresses and strains.

"You know, our bodies were not meant to sit at desks all day and that only a couple of generations ago we were an agrarian culture.

"Add that to the approximately 500 chemicals a day we're exposed to today, the toxins we have in our foods, in our environment, and it all causes our bodies not to function as well or causes disease in many instances."

"My understanding was that chiropractors realign the spine and the bones that have shifted," I persisted.

Manoni patiently explained there are 24 joints in our spines through which nerves pass from the spinal cord to just about every part of our bodies.

He described subluxation, defined as an incomplete or partial dislocation, as a blocked nerve root or blocked functioning in any joint. "If you have this in your wrist, you call it carpal tunnel syndrome; in your shoulder, maybe a bursitis...

"But if it's in your spine, it affects so much more because it affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system."

The sympathetic nervous system is active during stress or danger. It is involved in regulating pulse and blood pressure, dilating pupils, and changing muscle tone.

The parasympathetic nervous system controls involuntary, unconscious functions like slowing the heart rate, constricting pupils, relaxing the bowels.

"For example, if there was a subluxation of a joint in the lower back," Manoni continued, "some people would get sciatica from that. But those same nerve roots in your lower back go to your leg, and they also go to your organs of digestion and your urinary tract, so these can be affected, too."

"What's the goal of an adjustment?" I asked, having finally given up on getting an alignment.

"Ah, yes, adjustment...," he smiled with approval. "By adjusting with your hands and improving the function of the spinal joints, you improve the function of the nervous system."

Chiropractic is a holistic approach that enhances the function of the entire body, and Manoni equated this to taking supplements: "Are vitamins good for just one organ or for your whole body? You're eating nutritionally well, why? Because you want your pancreas to be healthy?

"No, because you want your entire body to be healthy. So having a properly functioning nervous system, taking care of where the nerves emanate from the spine, enhances the function of the whole human being."

For more information go to or call 203-792-9582.

Linda Napier is a registered nurse and independent patient advocate who lives in Southbury. She is the author of the book "Tender Medicine." You can contact her at

Do you need a mechanic or a chiropractor? - Danbury News Times

Shocking statistics on hospital errors - Natural health care and wellness should be the first choice.

Errors made by doctors, nurses and other medical caregivers cause 44,000 to 98,000 deaths a year. Hospital infections, many considered preventable, take another 100,000 lives. And mistakes involving medications injure 1.3 million patients annually in the U.S., according to the Food and Drug Administration.
[Do these numbers shock you?]
New Focus on Averting Errors: Hospital Culture -

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Developing standards to document effect on organ function of spinal cord injury - Chiropractic philosophy in a nutshell

[This article is so amazing. It really drives home how traditional medicine has been missing the forest for the trees. Published just last year, the best scientists from around the world said, wait a second. In spinal cord injury we are documenting loss of motor function (weakness), loss of sensory function (pain, tingling)but we have not been looking at the expected effects on organs. That is strange because bidirectional nerves at all levels of the spinal column carry nerve signals from the spinal cord, through the bones of the spine, into large groups and out to the organs. What I'm saying is, why can chiropractic help with sciatica but some don't believe it can help with blood pressure, digestive problems, etc.. If there is strain or inflammation at the level of the spinal cord or nerve root, how can only the motor and sensory nerves be affected while the nerves to the organs just float through unaffected? That's right, they can't!Hopefully these scientists will complete this interesting research, basically chiropractic philosophy, over the next decade and further the profession of chiropractic even more.]

Spinal Cord (2009) 47, 36–43; doi:10.1038/sc.2008.121; published online 28 October 2008

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury
M S Alexander1, F Biering-Sorensen2, D Bodner3, N L Brackett4, D Cardenas4, S Charlifue5, G Creasey6, V Dietz7, J Ditunno8, W Donovan11, S L Elliott9, I Estores10, D E Graves11, B Green12, A Gousse4, A B Jackson1, M Kennelly13, A-K Karlsson14, A Krassioukov9, K Krogh15, T Linsenmeyer16, R Marino8, C J Mathias17, I Perkash6, A W Sheel9, G Shilero18, B Schurch7, J Sonksen19, S Stiens20, J Wecht18, L A Wuermser21 and J-J Wyndaele22

1University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA
2Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
3Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
4University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
5Craig Hospital, Englewood, CO, USA
6Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
7University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich, Switzerland
8Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
9International Collaboration On Repair Discoveries (ICORD), University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
10James A Haley VA Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA
11Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
12Shepherd Center, Atlanta, GA, USA
13McKay Urology, Carolinas Healthcare, Charlotte, NC, USA
14Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
15Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
16Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, West Orange, NJ, USA
17Imperial College, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK
18James J Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA
19Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
20Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care, Seattle, WA, USA
21Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MS, USA
22University Hospital Antwerp, University Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Correspondence: Dr A Krassioukov, ICORD/Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4. E-mail:

Received 19 June 2008; Revised 29 August 2008; Accepted 31 August 2008; Published online 28 October 2008.

Top of pageAbstract
Study design: Experts opinions consensus.

Objective: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI).

Background and Rationale: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information about the status of a person's autonomic function.

Methods: Based on this deficiency, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function.

Results: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On-line communication was followed by numerous face to face meetings. The information was then presented in a summary format at a course on Measurement in Spinal Cord Injury, held on June 24, 2006. Subsequent to this it was revised online by the committee members, posted on the websites of both ASIA and ISCoS for comment and re-revised through webcasts. Topics include an overview of autonomic anatomy, classification of cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor and thermoregulatory function, bladder, bowel and sexual function.

Conclusion: This document describes a new system to document the impact of SCI on autonomic function. Based upon current knowledge of the neuroanatomy of autonomic function this paper provides a framework with which to communicate the effects of specific spinal cord injuries on cardiovascular, broncho-pulmonary, sudomotor, bladder, bowel and sexual function.

Keywords: autonomic nervous system, spinal cord injury, human, international standards

Monday, March 8, 2010

Article describes relationship between minor curvatures of the spine and diseased organs.

[This article has a great chart if you go to it. The documented relationship between spinal health and organ disease is nothing less than amazing. It definately supports chiropractic philosophy and further validates the sentiment, an ounces of prevention is worth a pound, more like a ton, of cure.]

“The object of these necropsies was to determine whether any connection existed
between minor curvatures of the spine, on the one hand, and diseased organs on
the other.”

Importantly, the types [of disease] documented include:
Larynx cancer, fatty degeneration of the thymus, pleural adhesions, pleural
effusions, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary congestion, lung
fibrosis, bronchitis, enlarged lymph nodes, influenza, heart endocarditis, heart
dilatation, heart muscle degeneration, pericarditis, aortic aneurysm, liver cirrhosis, liver swelling, liver tumors, enlarged spleen, atrophied spleen, inflamed spleen, pancreas degeneration, cystic kidneys, appendicitis, uterine adhesions, prostate hypertrophy, prostate atrophy, cystitis, hydrocele, osteomyelitis of the tibia, etc.

“In general, we found the ordinary diseases of adult life.”

“Therefore, in 50 cadavers with disease in 139 organs, there was found curve of the
vertebrae, belonging to the same sympathetic segments as the diseased organs
128 times, leaving an apparent discrepancy of 10, in which the vertebrae in curve
belonged to an adjacent segment to that which should supply the diseased organs
with sympathetic filaments.”

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Medicare Patients Give Chiropractic High Marks - 87 percent of patients surveyed gave their doctor of chiropractic a score of 8 or higher when asked

Medicare Patients Give Chiropractic High Marks - Dynamic Chiropractic>

[Great news for Medicare patients everywhere. The positive results coming out of this two year study may improve access to chiropractic services and to more affordable healthcare overall.]

The long-awaited final report on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) chiropractic demonstration project, conducted from April 2005 through March 2007, is good news for chiropractic, with 87 percent of patients surveyed giving their doctor of chiropractic a score of 8 or higher when asked to rate their satisfaction with care (1-10 scale), and 56 percent rating their chiropractor a perfect 10.

Key findings from the summary report, relative to patient experiences with chiropractic care and analysis of chiropractic-specific Medicare costs during the project, include the following. To review the report in its entirety, visit

■"Medicare beneficiaries reported good relief of symptoms and high degrees of satisfaction with the chiropractic care they received."

■"The most frequent reasons given for seeking care from chiropractors were favorable earlier experiences (59 percent) and insufficient relief of symptoms by prior treatments of other health professionals (39 percent)."

■"Clinical problems involved the back in 78 percent, neck in 50 percent, hip in 38 percent, and shoulder in 32 percent. Pain was the most frequent symptom, followed by difficulty walking. ... Sixty percent of [survey] respondents indicated that they received 'complete' or 'a lot of' relief of symptoms from their chiropractic treatments."

■"Chiropractic care was felt to be easily accessible, and nearly 95 percent of respondents indicated that they had to wait no more than one week for appointments. Similarly high proportions reported that chiropractors listened carefully and spent sufficient time with them."

■"The types of prior treatments received from other health care professionals differed strikingly from those received by chiropractors, including pain pills in 58 percent, pain injections in 30 percent, both pain pills and injections in 22 percent, and surgery in 12 percent. ... The high reported use of pain medications and surgery in treatments received from other types of health care professionals suggests the potential for achieving cost offsets [by using chiropractic care]."